By ORSHI TERHEMBA EPHRAIM
This article examines the prevailing situation of insecurity in Africa. The phenomenal rise in shameful or deplorable action or state of affairs generated much concern to scholars and policy makers. Findings show that the state of insecurity in Africa has been identified as an obstacle to economic development and integration of the continent. After over 50 years of independence, implementation of developmental policy has been elusive, considering the state of insecurity currently experienced in the continent. These significantly affect the economies of African Countries and possess the capacity of undermining and fueling insecurity across the globe. While the decline of development is not notably dropped, integration among African countries has descended. The article also examined the probable underpinning reasons causing Africa as an underdeveloped continent. With many reasons, it is noted that insecurity is not supporting the economic development and integration of Africa. With narration, this article proposes a policy change towards security challenges. The paper recommends the philosophy of Balance Scorecard, aimed at improving the prevailing security situation experience in Africa. It is therefore no doubt that economic development can only thrive in an atmosphere of peace.
It is widely acknowledged that security challenges have been identified as one of the major obstacles to development. This has cost on the economic development and integration among African countries. Currently, the political economy of Africa is characterised by violence which is not conducive for development and integration.
Africa is a continent with a sizeable land mass, located in an earthquake-free, tsunami-free zone of the world. If properly harnessed, African soil is capable of feeding the entire world. Some of the many Africa sub-regional arrangements have a long history of existence, dating back to the pre-independence era, which has been punctuated by occasional stagnations or reversals in a few cases, and only modest achievement at best in others.
Despite efforts by African Leaders for economic integration, however, there seems to be a consensus that the success of all Regional Economic Communities (RECs) in achieving their objectives has been less than satisfactory, as observed by Johnson (1995), and Lyakurua (1997). Many reasons have been attributed to this and the major cause is security problems.
These painful but truthful words speak volumes and it should be no surprise that the desperate cries of the African citizens are growing louder by the day with key examples of Mali, Nigeria, Egypt, Central Africa Republic, Sudan etc. Africa is experiencing its worst time. It is indeed passing through what may be regarded as one of its most challenging moment in history. Crises have engulfed the continent in all directions and if urgent action is not taken by African leaders, the situation is threatening to sink the continent.
These have resulted in lack of strong and sustained political commitment and goodwill, macroeconomic instability among others and have therefore hindered the progress of economic integration in Africa. In this context, the scope of this paper covers the following:
a. Conceptual Definition.
b. Overview of African Crisis.
c. Causes of Insecurity in Africa.
d. The Implication of Security Challenges on African
e. Conduct of Military Operation.
f. Challenges of the Military.
g. Consequences of Insecurity on African Economic Integration.
h. Policy Recommendation to African Leaders to Contain the Situation.
The concepts of management, conflict, combatants, civilians, ethnicity, internal security operation, external security operation, mission and intelligence, ethnic conflict, development and integration are briefly explained as follows:
Management: Management is the process of planning, organising, directing and controlling the resources of an organisation in order to achieve its goals efficiently. It is crucial to note that the main purpose of management is to achieve corporate goals and objectives in an effective and efficient manner. Thus, we can ask the question “why is management needed in an organisation”?
To answer this question, there is the need to briefly discuss the concepts of goals, effectiveness and efficiency. Goals can be seen as end results which an organisation seeks to realise or accomplish. Effectiveness is the ability to choose appropriate objectives or the appropriate means for achieving a given objective. Efficiency is the ability to get things done correctly and this is an input-output concept.
In managing conflict or crisis, a lot of managerial skills are needed to achieve the mission and objectives. An example is the timely collection, evaluation and analysis of information and data to produce intelligence from an array of sources. This will aid leaders to be more proactive than reactive in managing conflict or crisis in their various countries.
Conflict: Conflict refers to an active disagreement between people with opposing opinions or principles. This occurs when beliefs or actions of one or more members of the group are either resisted by or unacceptable to one or more members of another group. Conflict situation has created angry disagreement among various ethnic groups in Africa creating territories or ‘no-go-areas’ where one group or tribe is not free to operate in areas or communities outside its domain.
Combatant: According to the Third Geneva Convention of 1949, combatant is a person or persons engaged in international armed conflicts. Combatant indicates person who does not enjoy the protection against attack accorded to civilians, but does not imply a right to combatant status or prisoner-of war status. This means that civilians are protected against attack unless and for such time as they take a direct part in hostilities. The situation in Africa is somehow different where often time, coordinated attacks are directed toward civilian populace as against the Third Geneva Convention of 1949.
Civilians: According to the Advanced Learners Dictionary, Civilians are persons who are not members of the Police or the Armed Forces. The Customary International Humanitarian Law Rule 5 also defines Civilians as persons who are not members of the Armed Forces. Rule 6 of the Customary International Humanitarian Law further explained that civilians are protected against attack unless and for such time as they take a direct part in hostilities. Presently, the status of civilians is not accorded to them in Africa. Civilian populace come under direct enemy attack even though they are not rated as combatant. Attacks are not supposed to be directed to civilians. Attacks are only to be directed against combatants.
Ethnicity: Ethnicity or ethnic group is a socially defined category of people who identify with each other based on shared social experience, tribe, race, colour, language or ancestry. Africa as a heterogeneous state is made up of different ethnic groups, with each ethnic group striving to protect its own identity and territory, thereby, resulting into conflict of unimaginable proportions.
Internal Security Operation: Internal Security (IS) operations are series of related legal activities collectively undertaken by security and humanitarian agencies within the borders of a sovereign state in furtherance of state function. It is generally viewed as upholding constitution and defending the state against internal security threats. Responsibility for IS may range from Police to Paramilitary Force and in exceptional circumstances, the military. Threats to internal security may be directed at states, citizens or the organs and infrastructures of the state. Thus Joint Operation and Special Task Operation comprising the military and other services are established following the crisis that engulfed the continent.
External Security Operation: External Security Operations are series of related legal activities collectively undertaken by security and humanitarian agencies across the borders of a sovereign state in compliance with international functions. External operations are established by international organisation like United Nations (UN), European Union (EU), North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), African Union (AU), etc. Responsibility for external operation involves all uniform and civilian personnel. Thus external operations are established in furtherance to contain international threat which results to destruction of human and material resources.
Mission: Mission is a simple statement of task, together with the purpose, clearly indicating the action to be taken and the reason. In common usage, especially when applied to lower military units, the mission is a duty or task assigned to an individual or unit.
Intelligence: Intelligence is the product resulting from the collection, evaluation, analysis, integration and interpretation of all available information or data which concerns one or more aspects of a nation or areas of operations and which is immediately or potentially significant to military planning and operations.
Development: Development means the process of growing or changing into a more advanced, larger or stronger form. African countries as an economic bloc occupy a very low position in the global mainstream. Beyond the relatively unfavorable general positioning, the situation is quite mixed if countries are considered on an individual bases. Development has been the major problems of African countries as policies are not matched with action to cause development. This has prevented economic development and integration in the continent.
Integration: Integration means to mix with and join society or a group of people, often changing to suit their way of life, habits and customs. It is also the combination of two or more things in order to become more effective. Economic integration can only be possible in an atmosphere of peace. Where there is insecurity, integration becomes difficult. Insecurity has characterised the economy of Africa where as a result, no country is ready to sign any Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) of any type with another country.
OVERVIEW OF AFRICAN CRISES
Africa is faced with series of security challenges at present which many believe there may be no end to. But it is also re-assuring to note that a number of people still believe solutions to many of the challenges are not as distant as they seem. Such people believe that if every individual, especially the leaders do the right thing, the story will be a lot better.
Security is very important for economic development and integration as it provides protection to person, building, organisation or country against threats such as crime or attacks by foreign countries. A country can only be safe when this is guaranteed. However, the situation of Africa is a reverse vision, where security of life and property can no longer be guaranteed. The benefit of security in any country cannot be overemphasised, as it allows a conducive flow of activities.
Since inception, Africa has contended with the heterogeneous population, due to its strategic location and role in agriculture. With the abolition of slave trade and colonialism in Africa, most of the colonial masters and other traders remained in Africa and made it their permanent home. Other factors which have contributed to the growth of Africa include the high presence of christian organisations by the missionaries and the educational institutions introduced by them.
The major threshold of African crisis originated from ethnic, religious and political imbroglio. This is as a result of religious intolerance, political factors, power struggle, indigeneship, economic reasons and boundary dispute with all parties mutually suspecting each other. Over the last quarter of a century, African crisis of the late 1970s has transformed into what has aptly been called the “African Tragedy”. The propensity of the elites and ruling groups of Africa for bad policies and poor governance has been the definition of this tragedy.
African countries as an economic bloc occupy a very low position in the global mainstream. Beyond the relatively unfavorable general positioning, the situation is quite mixed if countries are considered on an individual basis. This is as a result of one important factor; security issues which have engulfed the continent from all directions and prevented economic development and integration.
From this account, however, it shows that what began as isolated disagreements between religious groups during the missionaries, created an avenue for religious crisis Africa is facing today. Moreover, the introduction of western education by the missionaries led to the relegation of traditional education in the continent which was characterised by high moral value. This also paved the way for instability such as religious intolerance, political crisis, power struggle, indigeneship and other economic instability.
The resultant effects of all these instability is terrorism as experienced today in Nigeria, Mali, Sudan, Somalia, and other African countries. According to Gushibet Solomon Titus (2012), the frightening aspect of the terror campaign is the resort to suicide bombing by members of the Sect, who are believed to be affiliated to international terrorist organisation.
Like every other challenge facing the continent, the security issue has been politicised in recent times, thus robbing the government of the collaborative efforts it should enjoy, across political and religious divides to contain the terror menace.
Gushibit Solomon Titus (2012) corroborated that preventing terrorism which have worsened the situation in Africa has been clearly ineffective. Inadequate manpower, poor condition of service, lack of modern and effective combat equipment, poor arms and communication gadgets, transport problem, corruption, among others are the impediments of effective security control.
Terrorism has led to the destruction of human and economic resources. As a result, African countries are on a reverse gear, development is rapidly diminishing and a call on African leaders is urgent to salvage the situation. It could be recalled that recently, President Goodluck Jonathan of Nigeria and President Jacob Zuma of South Africa held meeting on Tuesday, 16 April 2013 to discuss issues of security challenges threatening Africa and 50 years existence of African Union at the Presidential Villa, Abuja.
In the end, both leaders reached a common ground with a commitment to work together by providing the required leadership that would address the issues of security and other development related challenges facing the continent. If African leaders will commit their leadership to solving the security problems facing the continent, economic development, economic integration and free movement of people will characterise the continent.
METHODOLOGY AND SOURCES OF INFORMATION
Descriptive, narrative and deductive methods of reasoning and theoretical approach of analysing secondary literature were adopted. Thus, secondary sources of information were used. These pieces of information were obtained from published journals, magazines, the internet, newspapers, and other documentary sources.
CAUSES OF INSECURITY IN AFRICA
A number of issues such as long term drought, conflict, succession of poor harvests and rising food and fuel prices with examples of Somalia and Nigeria, have combined to spark off a flood of insecurity in Africa. This can be regarded as the normal causes.
However, the major causes of security breakdown can be traced to these two (2) factors:
a. Social and political injustice: Social and political injustice have contributed to the growing insecurity in Africa. These have resulted to inequitable distribution of wealth, tribalism and ethnicity, evil religious teachings and intolerance, bad and corrupt leadership. The importance of harmonising macroeconomic and trade policies for enhancing economic integration cannot be overstated. There is a general problem of significant disparity in the continent which does not allow free flow of economic development and integration among African countries. As a result, people choose violence when they are trying to right what they perceived to be a social, political or historical wrong, when they have been stripped-down of their rights or denied these. The activities of Movement for the Emancipation of Niger Delta (MEND) in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, the anti-apartheid campaign led by late Nelson Mandela, former President of South Africa, and the controversial election between Laurent Gbagbo and Alhassan Ouattara of Cote d’ Ivoire are key examples.
b. Violence and Threats: Another cause is the belief that violence or its threats will be effective and usher in change. Looking at it critically, you will agree with me that some people or group take violence as a means of protecting their interest. Boko Haram terror group in Nigeria, the Al-Qaeda terror group in Somalia and Mali, chose violence after long deliberation, which they believe will not yield any positive result, and felt they had no choice. Down to the economic integration of Africa, Mzukisi Qobo (June 2007) opined that, regional integration experience in Africa indicates that countries are hesitant to create supra-national bodies and transfer power to them as a sanctioning authority. The legal backing to force countries to fulfill their obligations such as reducing tariff rates and other trade barriers in accordance to their commitment is largely lacking on political commitment. Despite the rhetoric, practical commitment is also lacking. It is therefore observed that African countries are more committed to their multilateral and bilateral agreement than to regional agreement.
THE IMPLICATIONS OF SECURITY CHALLENGES ON AFRICAN ECONOMIC INTEGRATION
According to Gushibet Solomon Titus (2012), the economic effects of insecurity in Africa can be outlined into three major headings; viz loss of productive workforce, loss of economic assets/ properties, and a drag on foreign direct investment.
a. Loss of productive workforce: Typical examples are the Cote d’Ivoire presidential election which Mr. Alhassan Ouattara was declared the winner, the undemocratic change of government in Guinea Bissau and the civil war in Libya in the aftermath of the Arab Spring Uprising. Jean-Paul Azam (15 December, 2010) submits that, the manpower loss suffered as a result of terror attack have resulted in the death of university professors, quality academic and teachers, medical doctors, engineers, scientists, brilliant students, businessmen and women, civil servants, officers and men of the military and paramilitary etc. The industrious and productive working class (educated people) are always the target of elimination. This means that insecurity has not only inflicted sorrow (grief) on families that lost their loved ones but has robbed the continent of able-bodied men and women.
b. Loss of Economic Assets/Properties: The callous and wanton destruction of residential houses, commercial buildings, worship houses, schools, foreign mission (e.g. UN House Abuja) etc in Africa (especially Mali, Somalia, Nigeria, Liberia in the past) has wreaked uncalculated loss of properties of Africans and foreigners. Alemayehu Geda & Haila Kibret (2002) viewed that, this has denied the economy of her vibrancy and has contributed to the debilitating grip of underdevelopment and economic instability in Africa.
c. Drag on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): The fact that investors shun countries that are prone to conflict and the persistent insecurity entails a serious drain and hindrance to the inflow of FDI into the continent. Worst-still, capital flight has resumed with a vengeance. This implies increasing the gap between Africa’s potentials and her miserable human welfare and development indices. This in essence negates the principle of technology transfer. Africans need to re-examine their strategies for attracting FDI. Regional seminars have therefore been recommended for raising awareness across the continent.
CONDUCT OF MILITARY OPERATIONS
The wanton destruction of lives and properties following disagreement by different parties or interest groups is seen to be beyond the containment capacity of police deployed to check breakdown of law and order. The deployment of military contingent by the African Union and United Nations follows the inability of the home military to contain terror attacks on civilian and their properties. The United Nations Charter came into being in 1945 as a global solution “We the people of United Nation (become) determined to save succeeding generations from the scourge of War, which has brought untold sorrow to Mankind”.
UN personnel employs some control measures, including spontaneous cordon and searches in conjunction with other UN Organs based on intelligence to check trafficking and proliferation of arms, ammunition and explosives. It also engages in dialogue/ mediation at all levels through conduct of peace parleys between opposing groups/communities to douse tensions. The organisation has so far succeeded in preventing global conflicts. This is as a result of effective use of intelligence gathering mechanism, effective application of Rules of Engagement (ROE), and conduct of Civil- Military Cooperation (CIMIC) necessitated by good communication relevant in any theater of operation for winning the hearts and minds of the civil populace.
CHALLENGES OF THE MILITARY
The military successes in any operation whether Internal Operation or UN Operation notwithstanding are confronted with challenges. These challenges are:
a. Lack of acceptability by some communities: In some areas the consent of the host community is usually sought to provide military personnel with required freedom of action in achieving its mandate. However, due to allegation of bias and connivance against military personnel especially where the cause of disagreement is purely religious or ethnic, some communities reject the deployment of troops to their areas. This resentment manifests, in most cases in open assault and blocking of route to personnel and mass demonstration.
b. Negative Influence of the Media: The media is a very potent weapon in propagating the mission, activities and successes of the military, because of its reach and impact. However, a section of the media has not been favourably disposed towards the personnel of the military. The media hardly report instances where military prevented or repelled any attack but has never hesitated to report any alleged and unconfirmed misconduct by military personnel without proper investigation. This could discredit military personnel and mostly negatively influence public opinion against it with attendant effect on the peace process.
c. Lack of Information from the Populace: The passage of timely information to military by the people would enable it respond promptly to any threat. This is however not the case in some communities as the inhabitants are reluctant to give information due to false allegations of bias and connivance. This lack of information from the populace constitutes a challenge to the military as it hinders swift response to threats or emergency situations.
d. Reprisal Attacks: The culture of reprisal attacks is common to the crisis in Africa, especially ethnic and religious crisis. This is partly responsible for the cycle of violence in the continent as any violent attack on a particular group, usually attracts reprisal from the other group. The denial of access to the military and the danger that one incident could quickly spread through reprisal attacks constitute a challenge to the military.
e. Lack of Accessibility to the Hinterland: Accessibility into most villages and locations in the hinterland is quite difficult for vehicular and human movement. This accounts to the extended time of response to attacks in some villages. The situation is very evident during the rainy season as routes to most places are impassable. As such responses to emergency are always difficult in such areas.
f. Inadequate Communication Support: In most cases, accesses to good communication are limited. The popular VHF radio or walkie-talkie usually used by the military in most operations are not enough to cover the operation and sometimes under-utilised. At the end, military personnel end up using their personal line in coordinating operation.
g. Language Problem: Due to colonisation of Africa, the continent found itself under the influence of two major powers, Britain and France. Consequently, the medium of communication became English for the Anglophone and French for the Francophone countries. Since language is an important bridge in bringing people together, this polarisation of African states into the two different languages has inherent in it, problems of inability to communicate and to some extent, suspicion. This problem could be better imagined among members of the armed forces who are expected to live and fight together.
The military are besieged with a lot of challenges in the conduct of their operations. However, initiatives, actions and programmes designed and employed by the military to mitigate and manage some of these challenges include:
> Establishment of joint security operation committees,
> Dialogue and peace parleys,
> Quick impact project,
> Establishment of check points and road blocks,
> Cordon and search, raids strikes.
Others are in-mission training, patrol and ambushes, regular press briefing, introduction of Civil-Military Cooperation (CIMIC) net and close liaison with other security agencies.
CONSEQUENCES OF INSECURITY ON AFRICAN
There are many negative consequences of insecurity particularly with the emergence of the different terror group. The high profile of human and property destructions across the continent has raised a concern. No economy will develop in an atmosphere of insecurity as investors shun countries that are conflict-prone. This implies that business activities have been discouraged in Africa and the extent of destruction made cannot be exactly ascertained. Other negative effects are:
> Increasing unemployment,
> Dwindling levels of foreign direct investment,
> Massive reversal of private capital flows,
> Reduced access to credit and trade financing,
> Large and volatile movements in exchange rates,
> Growing budgets deficits, falling tax revenues and reduction of fiscal space,
> Increasing volatility and falling price for primary commodities,
> Sharply reduced revenues from tourism,
> Deceleration of growth and economic contraction,
> Negative effects on trade balances and balance of payments,
> Reduced ability to maintain social safety nets and provide other social services, such as health and education,
> Increased infant and maternal mortality,
> Collapse of markets.
The crisis threatens to have calamitous human and developmental consequences. Millions of people all over the continent are losing jobs, their income, savings and their homes. The World Bank estimates that more than 50 million people have already been driven into extreme poverty, particularly women and children. The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations projects that the crisis will contribute to a rising number of hungry and undernourished people worldwide, to a historic high figure of over one billion. All these are as a result of tribulation that have engulfed the continent in all directions and will continue to mar development and integration of Africa, if urgent actions are not taken.
Nation building is not like an electric switch which you turn on and off. It is a continuous process which makes a heavy demand on government and the people. We need a new mindset about the African project. But the starting point has to be an admission that we need to fix things. To stem the absorption of insecurity in Africa and to better curtail such, the following policy initiatives are recommended:
a. Stop the flow of terror funds: Africa is a victim of flow of terrorist funds by rich countries; this is because rich countries fund the construction of religious schools without proper background checks by the host country. The alternative way is to pressure these rich countries through diplomatic channels to fund charities/ religious school only after proper verification and certification that they aren’t indulging in any radical propaganda and brainwashing their student to wage holy wars. We need also, to improve the banking regulation and laws at home as well as in developing countries to ensure that terrorist don’t benefit from tax regulations and circumvent the system by getting funds to fund their terrorist plans.
b. The issue of functional education: Education is considered to be a tool for building a just and egalitarian society. According to Posner (2010), a country cannot develop above the education of its citizens. African countries should take education as a necessity for development and integration. A good example is USA, UK and China just to mention a few. These countries developed based on their advancement in technology. Funding of education should be meaningful as to provide equipment to encourage functional education as against paper qualification. Africans are encouraged to take advantage of opportunities; they do not come every time.
Opportunity + Preparedness = SUCCESS
We Africans can only succeed if we make use of the bricks others have thrown to us.
“A successful man is one who can lay a firm foundation with the bricks others have thrown at him” – David Brinkley.
c. African leaders should find a way of resolving tussle internally: Since the Genocide in Rwanda 1994, it has become evident that African leaders must look inwards and stop depending on Europe and the US in the search for solutions to their problems. The compelling evidence is to forge a common agreement that will provide ‘African Solution to African Problems’ as christened in the Constitutive Act of the AU. It could be viewed that this was effective during the Rwanda post-genocide, when the Gachacha Justice system was used during the trials/healing and peace-building process that followed in a bid to rebuilding the broken bonds between Rwandese.
d. Actors in the African Peace Process Should Deploy a Research Team to Explore the Cultures of the Different People in the State: Especially those in whose domain conflict flashpoints or fault lines exist, this in a quest for their traditional conflict resolution mechanisms that might add impetus to the many efforts already in place.
e. The Use of Traditional Initiative of Crisis Control: The traditional justice system in Africa which has been discarded in some states may need to be revitalised and put on the front burner of international discourse. There is need to muster the political will to drive the process towards this African ‘renaissance’.
f. The Use of Hybrid Method of Crisis Control: This can be achieved by integrating the military, para-military, traditional rulers, civil military cooperation (CIMIC), Government Agencies, NGO, International Organisations like AU and UN and other professional organisations. It seems a hybrid of both state-centric security strategies combined with cultural realities from community standpoints, will provide answers to the security challenges faced in the continent.
g. A Robust Communication System Should be Established for Security Agencies: This will pave way for effective liaison with other security agencies in neighboring African states. The incorporation of vigilante groups and informants for quick passage of information and installation of CCTV at flash points within strategic places should be encouraged for proper monitoring.
The position in this paper is loud that Africa is precious enough to be saved. It deserves an investment of our time and resources to make project Africa a success. Let us start off by admitting the mistakes of the past by assessing our scorecard.
In the words of Drury (2004), “the need to integrate financial and non-financial measures of performance and identify key performance measures that link measurement to strategy led to the emergence of the balance scorecard. The balance scorecard was devised by Kaplan and Norton (1992) and refined in later publications by Kaplan and Norton, (1993, 1996 & 2001). It is an integrated set of performance measures derived from the company’s strategy that give top management a fast but comprehensive view of the organisational unit that is a division/ strategic business unit.
The balanced scorecard philosophy assumes that Africa’s vision and strategy is best achieved when Africa is viewed from the following four perspectives:
a) Security Perspectives (How do other continents see us? Are we safe?)
b) Economic Perspective (What must we excel at? Can we compete with other continents in the market?)
c) Development Perspective (Can we continue to improve and create value? Can we change into more advanced, larger or stronger form?)
d) Integration Perspective (How do other continents see us? Can we mix or join or combine to become more effective?)
This will enhance strategic feedback and learning so that Leaders can monitor and adjust the implementation of their strategy, and, if necessary, make fundamental changes to the strategy itself.
Wrong priorities have hindered success. Right policies have at times been wrongly implemented. Progress is likely to be achieved gradually through developmental coordination and infrastructure development in the continent if the scorecard is aptly assessed. However, it is a herculean task to our leaders who must take urgent action. Adjustment should be made to correct past mistakes and avoid future ones. If Regional Economic Communities (RECs) are rationalised, it could be the first step on the path toward a successful regional integration that supports the objectives of the African Economic Community.
In conclusion, the benefits of regional integration, and indeed globalisation, remain a critical part of Africa’s workable development strategy. The era of isolated tiny national economies has to give way for strategic alliances that harness knowledge and resource based on comparative edge through integration.
In this paper, an attempt was made to identify the causes and effects of security challenges in Africa, examining the implications on African economic integration after over 50 years of independence and policy recommendations were offered to African leaders to contain the situation.
What is abundantly clear is that, African leaders will not achieve success at the regional level if they fail to do so at the domestic level, and therefore they need to develop policies that focus on economic development and also to assess their scorecard. The issue of insecurity which characterised the continent must be addressed to encourage foreign investors. If the united states of Africa and the introduction of common currency that will solve the problem of exchange among African countries is not to be another still-born dream, it will have to begin with gradual and pragmatic steps.
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